The different fields in psychology indicates the importance and relevance of these areas in our daily life. In this section we will briefly learn about some of these fields.
This branch of psychology tries to describe, assess, predict and control those categories of behaviours which are considered as unusual and non-normative. It also deals with various categories of psychological disorders which affect the mental health of the individual. It assesses abnormality in the individual through standardized psycho-diagnostic tools and suggests problem specific treatment.
It deals with acquisition, storage, transformation and application of information the individual uses to understand and interpret events happening around him/her.
Clinical and Counseling Psychology:
Clinical psychology is primarily concerned with diagnosis and treatment of various psychological disorders. A clinical psychologist is trained in psychotherapeutic techniques which are used to treat people suffering from psychological disorders. They are employed in hospitals and clinics dealing with mental health problems. The counseling psychologist deals with mild problems pertaining to adjustment in social and emotional life, and provides specialized services to deal with marital problems, stress oriented problems and career choice.
This field of psychology is mainly concerned with academic performance. It studies the role of various factors which influence learning processes in classroom setting. It focuses on assessing the aptitude, skills and intellectual potential of the students and evaluating their performance. An educational psychologist also helps students to overcome learning difficulties.
This field is concerned with the study of interaction between physical environment and human behaviour. It studies the impact of noise, heat, humidity, pollution and crowding on human performance. It also focuses on the impact of physical environment on psychological health of individuals.
This field focuses on the impact of various psychological factors (e.g. stress) on the onset progress and treatment of illness. It also deals with various life style diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, cancer and diabetes.
This field is concerned with application of psychological principles and models to study the selection and performance of employees in organizational settings. It also studies the concepts of leadership, motivation, job satisfaction and performance appraisal.
This field is concerned with the study of various physical and psychological factors which influence the systematic changes which the individual experiences across the different stages of life.
In addition to the fields mentioned above a number of new areas have emerged. Some of these fields are sports psychology, military psychology, aviation psychology, forensic psychology, peace psychology, neuropsychology, political psychology, feminist psychology and positive psychology.
For example, we can take public presentation. We will state how people with low emotional intelligence act a couple of days before, during and after the presentation. Afterwards, we will compare their behavior with the behavior of people with high emotional intelligence.People with low emotional intelligence: When the day of the presentation is approaching, a person becomes more nervous, unable to eat or sleep and generally feels bad. Due to the high anxiety, his/her preparation is bad. Whenever a person imagines the situation of presenting in front of a larger number of people, his/her mind creates a terrible picture. On the day of presentation, a person feels bad until the beginning of the presentation. The first few minutes, he/she feels terrible. His/her hands are sweating, a voice is shivering, and he/she is very nervous. After some time, the nervousness ceases and a person is pleasantly surprised. Due to a previous nervousness, a person’s memory is not so good, so he/she often must take a look in his/her notes. A presentation is not humorous because a person is too tense to see the funny side. At the end of the presentation, he/she forgets to thank his team.People with high emotional intelligence: A person feels a slight nervousness but tries to confront it by preparing the material for the presentation. When his/her mind becomes full of bad thoughts, a person starts to motivate himself/herself with positive thoughts. Because of the relaxed state, a person is able to distinguish what is important from the unnecessary details and therefore has a better presentation than the person with low emotional intelligence. On the day of the presentation, a person is nervous but assures himself/herself that the low level of nervousness is actually good. The first few minutes he/she is nervous, but then relaxes. The audience is laughing to person’s humorous statements which makes him/her more relaxed. Due to the relaxation, a person has no problem with memory and rarely looks at his/her notes and is natural and spontaneous.
Emotional intelligence allows a person to recognise and embrace his/her own and other people’s emotions, as well as to recognise their cause. Emotionally intelligent people develop their creative side more quickly and have the ability to deal with a particular problem in several ways. Emotional intelligence also enables easier social integration. It consists of five components, and those are knowledge of own inner feelings, control over the intensity of emotions, self-motivation, recognition of other people’s emotions and establishment and maintenance of relationships with other people. When it comes to the knowledge of own inner feelings, the key is to recognise them at the moment they occur. People who are sure about their feelings manage their life better and make more deliberate decisions (choosing a marriage partner, University, workplace, etc.). People who have the ability to control the intensity of emotions are able to calm themselves down and easily free themselves from depression, anxiety or irritability. Self-motivation is an essential quality because no matter how talented or capable we are, we will not achieve anything without persistent and long-term labour. Emotionally intelligent people are able to motivate themselves, so they achieve better results. They control their impulses, think positively, and they are optimistic. Emotionally intelligent people have the ability to recognise other people’s emotions, they can sympathise with them and help them. Also, they can easily identify the signals that indicate what other people want or need. The establishment and maintenance of relationships with other people are also an essential characteristic of an emotionally intelligent person. It depends on the recognition of other people’s emotions and the appropriate response to them. The leading scientists in the field of emotional intelligence were Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer.
Chin Touching. The person who touches his/her chin during a conversation feels anxiety and discomfort. Touching the chin falls into the soothing innate nonverbal gestures when we’re trying to calm down or alleviate the feelings of anxiety and tension. Women, instead of touching the chin, often play with the collar in order to achieve the same calming effect. Nose Touching, the person who touches his/her nose is most often hiding something from their interlocutors. It is important to understand the context in which this action takes place because it may be that this is just about the nose leaking, or some other biological intrusion. If this action happens frequently, it may indicate interlocutor’s unclean conscience. Ear Touching, the ear falls into soothing actions. Soothing body movements are actions that have the effect of calming the pulse when you overcome the feeling of restlessness and anxiety. If a person during a conversation starts to touch his ear, he/she is trying to say that he/she has already heard everything that was said, or that he/she disagrees.
Head Tilted to one side is a reflection of the positive emotions. It is very hard to take such body position and not to feel extremely great comfort and relaxation. This body position is mostly taken up during courtship in order to show affection to the opposite side. In the Smiling Clenched Lips during the conversation, a person who clenches the lips, but still retains a smile on his/her face, often hides the truth. If a woman finds herself in the company of a man that she doesn’t like, she is going to have this kind of facial expression. Look to the side look to the side characterises a lack of trust of what interlocutor says to us. This position often suggests the doubt because of the interlocutor’s expressed thoughts. Look to the side may take only a few seconds, but may also last throughout the whole conversation.
Head Leaning on Hands – If a person props his/her hands on the table and puts his head on them, it means that he is ready to seduce the person with whom he is communicating. The person tries to look seductive and mystical. A man should give a woman a compliment if he likes her. This kind of behavior is the usual way of catching attention, so the interlocutor should be careful. Crossed Arms behind the Back when a person crosses hands behind the back, he/she takes the position of leadership. Many doctors, lawyers and people from higher ranks tend taking up such attitude that indicates a person’s dominance. Studies have shown that mothers with the authoritarian style of upbringing often occupy such a position of the body which has a negative impact on the development of the child who longs for the touch. Rubbing hands is a gesture that indicates that a person feels anxious in a certain situation. If the intensity of rubbing hands increases, that means that a person in that situation becomes more uncomfortable and that his/her confidence is on the decline.
Torso Protection Body position in which a person crosses his/her hands and put a thumb toward the air indicates that a person has a strong character that he/she is willing to listen to another person and take another person’s views into account. This attitude indicates that the person is calm and tranquil. Crossed Arms in the case of two people talking and one person feels uncomfortable, it is considered socially unacceptable that one person just gets away from the assailant. In order to achieve the effect of protection, people tend to cross their arms or button up their coat because they feel uncomfortable in the company of such people. Gesture that Indicates Stress if a woman lies her hand on the chest, that has a calming effect and according to the classification, this gesture belongs to the soothing nonverbal gestures. This movement should placate the pulse of the heart and create a sense of well being. In stressful situations, people resort to this tranquil form of behavior.
Crossed Feet Intertwined feet is considered to be a sign of fear, discomfort and desire for escape. During police questioning, it was found that many suspects intertwine their feet in this way, what makes them suspicious. The reason for locking the feet is to calm the movements of the legs to satisfy the entire body. Studies have shown if the number of arm and leg movements is reduced, that a person is lying. This nonverbal movement is an innate nonverbal movement when the threat is spotted, the body is calm. Hard Position A person is in a sitting position, one foot is on the floor, the other foot is switched over other leg and hands are wrapped around a leg. This attitude suggests that a person has a solid character and that he is stubborn. People with this position of the body will always get what they want. Solid Position man is in a sitting position, one foot on the floor, and the other foot is passed over the leg, and his hands are wrapped around his legs. This attitude points to a man of solid character and stubbornness. People with this body position will always get what they want. Crossed Legs and hands when the hands are crossed and when fists are clenched, that indicates a sign of discomfort and stress. This position of the body in a combination of crossed legs indicates that the person is not comfortable and that he/she feels vulnerable and insecure.
Nonverbal communication refers to the part of the interpersonal communication that takes place without the use of words. This term also includes communication between people and animals. Nonverbal communication can occur intentionally or unintentionally. Verbal communication should have nonverbal aspects of communication. Different nations have expressed different gestures through the hands, legs, torso, and face, especially eyes and mouth. The ability to “read” the face is the part of the genetic heritage from the time when language was not yet developed. The widely accepted opinion is that nonverbal communication is best read from the eyes or face. Today it is known that the most honest parts of the body are feet. Feet reveal the most hidden intentions and desires. Hands are part of the body through which one can read emotions the most. On various trips or banquets, if a person caresses our arm or shoulder, that means we suit those people and that everything is all right. If a woman during flirting looks towards interlocutor’s shoes and leans her head often to the side, she wants to create the impression that she is smaller than she is. This behaviour shows that a woman gives a man leadership and that she finds him more dominant than herself. This is a genetically innate behaviour and appears during several minutes of conversation with the interlocutor.
What is important in your life You have to ask yourself this question on a consistent basis what is important in your life what is it that you want your life to mean. It will take time and effort. It might be easy for some of you but the hardest thing for most.
Because when people are asked what is it, they want specific in their life. Most will get stuck, but then they will give more generic answers like more money, more time etc. But when you ask them to dig deep and find the real answers, they will feel uncomfortable.
What is important in your life You have to ask yourself this question on consistent basis what is important in your life what is it that you want your life to mean. It will take time and effort. It might be easy for some of you but the hardest thing for most.
Because when people are asked what is it they want specific in their life. Most will get stuck but then they will give more generic answers like more money, more time etc. But when you ask them to dig deep and find the real answers they will feel uncomfortable.
Or do you get stuck in a box
Breathe in step out
The world is waiting for you to start being the best you are 😁
Protect yourself from scams
Scammers are getting increasingly sophisticated in their attempts to get your money or personal details. Be alert and protect yourself from being scammed by following our tips.
Scams target everyone
How to spot a fake
Follow up scams
Scams target everyone
Scams target people of all backgrounds, ages and income levels across Australia. There’s no one group of people who are more likely to become a victim of a scam, all of us may be vulnerable to a scam at some time.
Scams succeed because they look like the real thing and catch you off guard when you’re not expecting it. Scammers are getting smarter and taking advantage of new technology, new products or services and major events to create believable stories that will convince you to give them your money or personal details.
Be alert to the fact that scams exist. When dealing with uninvited contacts from people or businesses, whether it’s over the phone, by mail, email, in person or on a social networking site, always consider the possibility that the approach may be a scam. Remember, if it looks too good to be true, it probably is.
Know who you’re dealing with. If you’ve only ever met someone online or are unsure of the legitimacy of a business, take some time to do a bit more research. Do a Google image search on photos or search the internet for others who may have had dealings with them. If a message or email comes from a friend and it seems unusual or out of character for them, contact your friend directly to check that it was really them that sent it.
Do not open suspicious texts, pop-up windows or click on links or attachments in emails – delete them: If unsure, verify the identity of the contact through an independent source such as a phone book or online search. Don’t use the contact details provided in the message sent to you.
Don’t respond to phone calls about your computer asking for remote access – hang up – even if they mention a well-known company such as Telstra. Scammers will often ask you to turn on your computer to fix a problem or install a free upgrade, which is actually a virus which will give them your passwords and personal details.
Keep your personal details secure. Put a lock on your mailbox and shred your bills and other important documents before throwing them out. Keep your passwords and pin numbers in a safe place. Be very careful about how much personal information you share on social media sites. Scammers can use your information and pictures to create a fake identity or to target you with a scam.
Keep your mobile devices and computers secure. Always use password protection, don’t share access with others (including remotely), update security software and back up content. Protect your WiFi network with a password and avoid using public computers or WiFi hotspots to access online banking or provide personal information.
Choose your passwords carefully. Choose passwords that would be difficult for others to guess and update them regularly. A strong password should include a mix of upper and lower case letters, numbers and symbols. Don’t use the same password for every account/profile, and don’t share your passwords with anyone.
Review your privacy and security settings on social media. If you use social networking sites, such as Facebook, be careful who you connect with and learn how to use your privacy and security settings to ensure you stay safe. If you recognise suspicious behaviour, clicked on spam or have been scammed online, take steps to secure your account and be sure to report it.
Beware of any requests for your details or money. Never send money or give credit card details, online account details or copies of personal documents to anyone you don’t know or trust. Don’t agree to transfer money or goods for someone else: money laundering is a criminal offence.
Be wary of unusual payment requests. Scammers will often ask you to use an unusual payment method, including preloaded debit cards, gift cards, iTunes cards or virtual currency such as Bitcoin.
Be careful when shopping online. Beware of offers that seem too good to be true, and always use an online shopping service that you know and trust. Think twice before using virtual currencies (like Bitcoin) – they do not have the same protections as other transaction methods, which means you can’t get your money back once you send it. Learn more about online shopping scams.
How to spot a fake
Clues for spotting a fake document
Clues for spotting fake documents
Documents are easily faked. Some will look just like the real thing but others might have warning signs, such as:
generic rather than personal greeting
names of organisations that don’t exist
poorer quality presentation
poorer quality grammar and spelling
overly official or forced language.
Documents such as flight itineraries and bank statements have simple, uncomplicated layouts even when they are legitimate because such businesses allow their customers to print online statements. This means that scammers can easily create fake documents by using information available online such as company logos and graphics from websites.
Clues for spotting a fake email
Clues for spotting a fake email
Scammers can easily fake an official-looking email, using the same logo and design as the real company.
Often your guard is down when you receive an email from a company you’ve dealt with before, such as Australia Post or an online shopping site you use. If you’re not expecting an email, always be alert to a fake before clicking on any links or opening any attachments.
Clues for spotting a fake dating profile
When looking at a new dating profile, note anything unusual about their choice of:
Clues for spotting fake profiles
language skills matched to background.
Scammers often use fake photos they’ve found online.
Tip: Do an image search of your admirer to help determine if they really are who they say they are. You can use image search services such as Google or TinEye.
Follow up scams
Scammers will often try to take advantage when you’re feeling vulnerable and try to extract more money from you through a follow up scam.
Some common follow up scams include:
offers from a law enforcement agency to investigate your scam and retrieve your money for a fee. Law enforcement agencies do not charge for their services
a doctor calling you to alert you that the scammer urgently needs medical bills to be paid or they might die
a woman contacting you to explain she is the scammer’s wife and wants to escape him but needs money to do so.
These are only a few of the follow up approaches scammers may use try to get more money from you. New approaches could be quite different from the original scam and could come quickly or some time later. Scammers may have passed your details to other scammers who use entirely different methods and the new approach may seem totally unrelated to the original scam.
Types of scams
The ACCC provides information on the most common types of scams targeting the Australian community, and collects and publishes data on these scam types.
Where to get help
If you’ve lost money to a scam or given out your personal details to a scammer, you’re unlikely to get your money back. However there are steps you can take straight away to limit the damage and protect yourself from further loss.
Real life stories
Read our real life stories to see how you can learn from these experiences and help stop the scams from spreading.
We’ve compiled a collection of online resources and useful sites to help you understand, recognise and avoid scams.