Baby mix up

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Funny stuff ~

๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜
๐Ÿ˜†๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜†๐Ÿ˜‚
๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚
  • Funny ~
    A young woman walks into a Chartered accountant's office and tells him that she needs to file her tax Returns. The accountant says, 'Before we begin, I'll need to ask you a few questions.' He gets her name, address etc. and then asks, ' What's your occupation? 'I'm a prostitute', she says. The accountant is … Read More
  • Funny Stories ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜
    NUDITYI was driving with my three young children one warm summer evening when a woman in the convertible ahead of us stood up and waved.She was stark naked! As I was reeling from the shock,I heard my 5-year-old shout from the back seat, 'Mom, that lady isn't wearing a seat belt*************************************************************************OPINIONSOn the first day of … Read More
  • Mystic Poet ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜
    โ€œSIGNIFICANT TOUCH, NOW, FOREVER!โ€ a poem a.k.a.: โ€œBedbugs Unite(d)!โ€ November 2, 2018, Friday! {Large acrylic: โ€œAbstract: Jack and Rose, Together!โ€} The importance of TOUCH – is well documented, Existence itself – must-be – supplemented, By stroking (and) caressing! Please! DO-hold-your-baby, And, when we are older, it ISNโ€™T a maybe: YOU NEED TO HAVE OTHERS – … Read More
  • Mothers Milk ๐Ÿ˜…๐Ÿ˜…
    BIOLOGY EXAM:This is straight from Scotland.  Students in an advanced Biology class were taking their mid-term exam.  The last question was, 'Name seven advantages of Mother's Milk.   The question was worth 70 points or none at all. One student, in particular, was hard put to think of seven advantages. However, he wrote:1) It is perfect … Read More
  • Testicle Therapy
    Testicle Therapy Two women were playing golf. One teed off and watched in horror as her ball headed directly toward a foursome of men playing the next hole. The ball hit one of the men. He immediately clasped his hands together at his groin, fell to the ground and proceeded to roll around in agony. … Read More
  • One of my first “Lonely Hearts”. Enjoy peeps. By Facebook ๐Ÿ˜ป๐Ÿ˜‚
  • I tell it like it was ๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿคฃ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜…๐Ÿ˜†๐Ÿ˜‰๐Ÿ˜Š
    When I was a child I can still remember looking up at a man just like him. My father looked down at me. I was under the shadows of that giantic belly. Thats all I could see, no face, nothing! To my Father's embrassment I still to this day see Dad's face flush a crimson … Read More
  • I tell it like it was ๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿคฃ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜…๐Ÿ˜†๐Ÿ˜‰๐Ÿ˜Š
    When I was a child I can still remember looking up at a man just like him. My father looked down at me. I was under the shadows of that giantic belly. Thats all I could see, no face, nothing! To my Father's embrassment I still to this day see Dad's face flush a crimson … Read More
  • Worn only by “cock heads” ๐Ÿฆƒ
  • This woman says she can โ€˜cureโ€™ homosexuality with a suppository that kills โ€˜wormsโ€™ / LGBTQ Nation ~ what next ๐Ÿคฃ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿฆ„
    https://www.lgbtqnation.com/2019/04/woman-says-can-cure-homosexuality-suppository-kills-anal-worms/ ME? CRAZY? I should get down off this ๐Ÿคฃ๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿคฃ๐Ÿ˜‚ Unicorn and slap you ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿคฃ ๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿฆ„ I HAD MY PATIENCE TESTED YESTERDAY And IT CAME BACK NEGATIVE ๐Ÿ™ Aceย  News ROOMSย 
  • Squirrelย Infestation ๐Ÿค—
    Squirrel Infestation The Presbyterian church called a meeting to decide what to do about their possum infestation. After much prayer and consideration, they concluded the possums were predestined to be there and they shouldn't interfere with God's divine will. At the Baptist church the squirrels had taken an interest in the baptistery. The deacons met … Read More
  • Women you can’t live with or without them ๐Ÿ˜
    Time and circumstances tore us apart I am still living with the pain It is a strong possibility That I may never see him again But I am not disheartened Would you like to know why? No matter how far he goes Weโ€™d always be under the same sky
  • FUNNY Cute little vegemite’s ๐Ÿ˜
  • Proof That The World Is Nuts!๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜‚
    Strange facts you gotta know or be reminded of… Proof That The World Is Nuts! In Lebanon, men are legally allowed to have sex with animals, but the animals must be female. Having sexual relations with a male animal is punishable by death. (Like THAT makes sense.) ~~~~~~~~~ In Bahrain, a male doctor may legally … Read More
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Story time ~

A mother-in-law stopped by unexpectedly the recently married couple’s house. She knocks on the door, then immediately walks in. She is shocked to see her daughter-in-law lying on the couch, totally naked.

“What are you doing?” she asked.

“I’m waiting for Jeff to come home from work,” the daughter-in-law answered.

“But you’re naked!” the mother-in-law exclaimed.

“This is my love dress,” the daughter-in-law explained.

“Love dress? But you’re naked!”

“Jeff loves me to wear this dress! It makes him happy and it makes me happy.”

The mother-in-law on the way home thought about the love dress. When she got home she got undressed, showered, put on her best perfume and expectantly waited for her husband, lying provocatively on the couch.

Finally her husband came home. He walked in and saw her naked on the couch.

“What are you doing?” he asked.

“This is my love dress,” she replied.

“Needs ironing,” he says” “What’s for dinner?”

Affiliate marketing ~ Home based business

  • Affiliate Marketing | Ethical Direct Selling Group
    What is affiliate marketing, how does it work and who does it work for? โ€” Read on ethicaldirectsellinggroup.com/affiliate-marketing-the-pros-and-cons/
  • Home Based BUSINESS ~ Dream team coffee munchers
    WE USE โ€œThe real measure of success is the number of experiments that can be crowded into 24 hours.โ€ โ€”Thomas EdisonMost projects start with confidence. Weโ€™re going to crush this! Then come the mistakes. We squirm. We become riddled with self-doubt. Suddenly the prospect of success seems like a dim light bulb.At some point, though, … Read More
  • Affiliate marketing ~ Home based business
    https://youtu.be/eg2f_FKqv2Q https://youtu.be/85xMGoHAcJQ
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  • How to Build a Home Network Marketing Business ~ business psychology
    https://wp.me/p9yQNZ-4o https://youtu.be/kodl1Q_y-zA

Perfect ~

DON’T DO IT!!!! “Don’t judge! or you will BE,

“JUDGMENT!” a poem July 7, 2019 (Sunday)

Judged!” (pause)

What-a-silly-admonition,

From-“The-Bible-tapestry!”

What’s-The-Point?

WHY?

A: “You’re-a-KOOK!”

Me too! So what?! Shall-we- ALL “sook?!”*

“But I LIKE-to-judge, and I’m A GOOD JUDGE too!!”

So, The-Lord-came-down, to-be-crucified? for-YOU?

And, what did He say? “Forget bloody judge – ment, (pause)

‘Cause EVERYTHING’S FINE!” That’s what-He-meant!

YOU-ARE-PERFECT, meaning:

All-you-do is-fine,

And – SO-IS-EVERYONE-ELSE!

Ain’t-that-just

DI-VINE?

fin <3

  • – i.e.: pout

Oliver Deighton has been found guilty of the manslaughter of 5 month old baby boy Michael Smedley.

Oliver Deighton has been found guilty of the manslaughter of 5 month old baby boy Michael Smedley.

Sadly, once again we are doing an RIP Post for a beautiful innocent baby.

STOP KILLING KIDS !!! I never thought we’d have to print that phrase, surely it’s just common sense, right? Well it seems to some people it definitely is not.
A Supreme Court jury found Oliver Deighton, 27, guilty of the manslaughter of five-month-old Michael Smedley who was left in his care. The mother of Michael, Tayla Smedley, burst into tears when Deighton was found guilty of causing the death of her baby.

Outside court, Ms Smedley said Michael was a happy baby who was loved by many people.
“It’s been hell, having to re-live the day over and over again.”

The court heard that Michael died of traumatic head injuries and that he had multiple bruises on his body. The jury also heard evidence that a forensic biologist allegedly observed sperm in a sample taken from the body of the baby. In his closing address to the jury on Monday, Crown prosecutor Stephen Robson accused Deighton of lying to keep ahead of the police investigation

At this point we should note that while there was allegedly a sperm sample taken, Deighton was found not guilty of raping the boy.

Mr Robson said Deighton went back to police and gave a false account of an “accidental fall and catch” of the baby from a change table. “He knew he had to get ahead of the police investigation and come up with a version that better suited his claim of innocence,” Mr Robson said.

In his closing address to the jury, defence barrister Scott Corish said there was no blood found in the nappy and that there was no DNA evidence to link Deighton to the sperm. “There is no DNA link to Oliver Deighton or any other male for that matter ๏พ…” Mr Corish said.

The court previously heard that when Ms Smedley was a teenager she left baby Michael in the care of her friend Tamara Cole who was in a relationship with Deighton at the time. When Ms Cole came back home from work she found Deighton with the “limp” baby who later died in the Alice Springs Hospital.

“These fatal head injuries occurred while baby Michael was under accused’s exclusive care,” Mr Robson said. Doctors, scientists, police, and relatives of both the accused and the victim gave evidence during the trial.

Ms Smedley gave evidence in the first week of the trial and said she arrived at the house and saw, “Tamara doing CPR on what basically looked like a rag doll.” Deighton was remanded in custody and he will be sentenced in September by Justice Peter Barr.

We at FACAA hope that Justice Barr sends a loud and clear message that the manslaughter of children is not welcome in the Northern Territory, by laying down a record sentence ! Anything less will be an insult to the memory of little 5 month old Michael Smedley and his loved ones !

Fly high with your angels Michael, just 5 months old and had his whole life ahead of him. Not anymore, thanks to Deighton, but here’s to hoping he serves life, without ever having the possibility of parole !

FACAA #ProudFACAA #RIPMichael #RestInPeaceMichaelSmedley #NT #NTPOL #NTPolice #OliverDeighton #ChildKiller #JoinTheFight #GuardiansOfTheInnocent #VoiceForTheVoiceless #HopeForTheHopeless #ChildrensChampions #EndingChildAbuse #RaisingAwareness #ChangingLives #HealingSurvivors #ChangingLaws #Legal #Law #LegalReform #JuliasJustice #PhoenixProgram #WeWillFight #StandUp #FromHellWeRise #JamiesGuardians

https://www.ntnews.com.au/news/crime-court/oliver-deighton-27-found-guilty-of-manslaughter-but-acquitted-of-raping-fivemonth-old-michael-smedley/news-story/1a4e20638d97d7ec73e2cf400ff46a31

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Yesterday ~ Golden & Tarnished memories โžฐ

“NOSTALGIA!”* a poem for: SUNDAY, July 7, 2019

Ever-miss The Days? of-the BARKING DOG?

And the Corvair car – and lots of “smog,”

And “Silent Spring?”** and “Attica,”

And THAT sad holiday? and RADICA-

L-MILITANTS? on The Courthouse step,

And the-continuing malady of-the-evil-“C HEP?”

And flus (or colds) – and broken toes,

And – a-fine tooth-ache, for goodness’ sake?

THOSE-MEMORIES-OF A-LIFE, BADLY-LIVED,

Or!? Maybe NOT! Perhaps, “Jealous-God” give-d,

YOU, just the-right-things – to-drive you crazy;

Like: DO YOU REMEMBER, how Grama Mazie,

Frail and moaning, with migraine pain,

Squeezed your hand TOO HARD! and, then-came,

That TERRIBLE QUESTION: “Do-you love-me?”

And-you-hesitated, ’cause-she-was:-DANG SCAR-Y?

And YOU WAITED (for what seemed years) BEFORE YOU SAID:

“OF COURSE, grama!” but, NOW, you’d give,

All you have, for one more try,

To look your grama – in “the eye,”

And say, with SUREST cer-tain-ty,

“I DO-LOVE-YOU, GRA-MA!”

And-she’d-smile with-glee!

fin <3

  • Nostalgia (n): Missin’ “old stuff!”

** – a book by author Rachel Carson, I think, suggesting chemical companies like Monsanto and Dow were gonna destroy the “natural” environment and we would all be left, living in a putrid waste of environmental proportions! i.e.: The way things are today!

Texas Couple Married for 62 Years Passes Away While Holding Hands

It’s hard to find a love story as incredible as the one of Tom and Delma Ledbetter. The Texas couple held hands during their final moments.
โ€” Read on www.wideopencountry.com/texas-couple-married-62-years-passes-away-holding-hands/

Aboriginal youth are 5 times more likely to commit suicide. One community Yulga Jinna, is bucking that trend.

Aboriginal youth are 5 times more likely to commit suicide. One community Yulga Jinna, is bucking that trend.

Statistics about Indigenous youth suicide are startling, with young Aboriginal people five times more likely to take their own lives than non-Aboriginal people. At this self-managed community more than 900 kilometres north of Perth, with 72 residents and a school that enrols children from kindergarten to Year 10, there have been no suicides since it was established in 1992. It is using music and song to engage young Aboriginal people at risk.

With so many negative stories going around about youth suicide, especially among our Indigenous youth, it’s great to see the positive work being done in the small remote community of Yulga Jinna.

The community is over 900 kilometres North of Perth and the school there serves children from Kindergarten to Year 10. Teachers at the school use music to engage the students and deal with mental health issues.

Since the school was established in 1992, they have recorded no suicides at all. Children are encouraged to talk through their music and have produced a song which they wrote themselves called Yulga Jinna Kid (available for viewing on YouTube).

Art in all of its many forms can be a great release, so much so that most psychiatric clinics and hospitals offer Art Therapy classes as part of their healing models. Writing literature, drawing, painting, sculpting, woodwork, metal work, pottery, singing, listening to or playing music, dancing, drama, craft endeavours and so forth all provide a relaxing release from the tension that trauma of any kind can cause as well as allowing self expression. One could even view gardening and decorating/renovations as a form of art – equally satisfying, healing and offering release from the stresses of life.

FACAA use music, drum and bass, dance, percussion, belly dancing to help survivors of child abuse overcome their ordeals. We do this to break the cycle of child abuse one survivor at a time. The awesome people at Yulga Jinna use similar programs to stop young people in their community. Well done Yulga Jinna.

You don’t have to be good at it, you just have to enjoy it. If you have never tried any form of art or craft before and you sometimes struggle with your own mental health, there is no better time than the present to experiment and see what fits you. You never know, you may just uncover a hidden talent within yourself along the way. (GE)

arttherapy #music #proactive #yulgajinnakid #yulgajinna #selfexpression #FACAA #ProudFACAA #Donate #DGRApproved #TaxExempt #Tax #Money #Financial #GoodIdea #MoneySense #JoinTheFight #GuardiansOfTheInnocent #VoiceForTheVoiceless #HopeForTheHopeless #ChildrensChampions #EndingChildAbuse #RaisingAwareness #ChangingLives #HealingSurvivors #ChangingLaws #Legal #Law #LegalReform #JuliasJustice #PhoenixProgram #WeWillFight #StandUp #FromHellWeRise #JamiesGuardians

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-06-25/engaging-aboriginal-youth-through-music-address-suicides/11187454

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A 1 in 750,000 chance: Windsor photographer snaps pic of 2 albino raccoons | CBC News

Unlike typical raccoons, albino raccoons have a genetic mutation that strips them of the traditional black and grey colouring. They are all-white, or off-white, including hands and feet. 
โ€” Read on www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/albino-raccoons-windsor-1.5194265

Tantra ~

“TANTRA!”* a poem 07/07/2019 (Sunday)

I’ve-got “ants-in-my-tantra,” ’cause tantra’s-The-Key,

To ALL of my (our) problems! Oh, golly! Wiz-gee!

Finally, we’ve-found The Fountain of Youth,

The “golden elixir!” We’ve got lots-of-proof!

Just-use-a “your flu-ids,” and cir – r – cu-late,

The-“micro-cosmic-orbit!” but – DON’T BE LATE,

For-there’re-only-a-few-good-squirts, so-[please]-use-them-well,

‘Cause-you-wanna-go-to-Heaven, right? and-stay-outta-H – L L!

OK, then: BREATHE! and-IMAGINE! The-“channels”-churning-fluid!

(I think they picked this up – from an ancient Dru-id!)

Of – a bodhisattva! who “sat” AN AWFUL LOT,

While-“enlivening” His chakras and/or smoking some good pot!

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Or – YES! It could be – from ancient Shinto – or Tao!

(That’s-maybe-where-Mantak-Chia-&-his-wife-got-it – some-how!)

I bet it was discovered – on a SACRED PA-PYRUS;

Do-THE-TANTRA, baby! It’s-really-gonna “fire-us!”

It’s – COUPLES! coupling: S-X-without-S-X, Honey!

We’ve found: ETERNAL YOUTH – and-there’ll-prob’bly-be-some-money,

‘Cause my concubine and me, we’ve-gained-a-hundred-years-of-youth!

We’re AGELESS! and TIMELESS! All-our-tears-have-gone POOF!

When we walk down The Street, people say: “How young,

You both do look1″ For-TANTRA, we-have-sung:

“THE WORLD IS OUR OYSTER; WE JUST BREATHE – & F – – – “

(Please say this silently: You can check it; it’s in The Archives!)

“Yesterday (Dang it!) we-both-got hit-by-a-truck!”

When we got “to Heaven,” THEY-said: “Oh! You two f – – – – – s!”

You-might-wanna-know (that, actually):

In-Heaven, there are A LOT – of lawyers-doctors-Indian-Chiefs (pause) and-truckers!

fin <3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=89lkJcqz6g8

  • Tantra (n): various techniques for “enlightenment” and enrichment of bodily processes, utilizing the dynamic Divine flow of procreation (or – something like that)!

Postnote: I ain’t sayin’ IT’s good; I ain’t sayin’ IT’s bad! – – – I-just-say: “1000-years-on-any-orb – can-make-anybody-sad! – – – And, when-you-wanna-go, you-don’t-want-fluids-stopping-you! – – – Just-ask-any-male-chimpanzee – at-The-San-Diego-Zoo!

P.S.: I don’t know what I am talking about AND I don’t wanna know what I’m talking about! ๐Ÿ™‚ – OK! (dummy!)

Tantra

“FINDING WHERE? WE’RE LEAST UNCOMFORTABLE IN THE DUALISTIC HORROR OF THINGS!”

Oh God! Oh JOY!
Another day! In-The-Life-of-Boy!
I guess BOY-was-less-uncomfortable [for me”] than being-the-GIRL,
At-least for this decrepit one! Well! Let’s-give-IT-“a-whirl!”

You ride “The Horse,” ’til IT tosses-you-off-into the air,
And you get to hit The Earth, upon your derriere!
Then, ride again – for all you’re worth,
Getting-bucked-off-once-more, hitting The-Unyielding-Earth!

Eventually, I guess, amidst all this DIS-com fort,
You decide on The Ride – that gives the least hurt!

You just get good (I guess) with your? chosen? PRE-occupation,
And you get some pats on your back (by you!) in your imagination!

This is LIFE OF BOY – or LIFE OF GIRL – or both!
You seek THE LEAST DISCOMFORT, as you swear your “sacred” oath!
SWEAR AN OATH – TO THE APPEARANCE OF EXISTENCE,
To: families, societies, professions – and legal insistence!

There is ALWAYS – “horrible resistance” to anything you do,
So you find some “Path of Least Resistance,” whether old or new!
You WALK your path! which means: You just GO THROUGH LIFE,
And-you-hope-for-“a hand-holder!” Maybe, your wife!

Hopefully, bullets WON’T-BE-whizzing past your delicate head;
You HOPE – there’ll-be-some-food, so-you-won’t-starve and-be-too-dead!

You HOPE – Life will be SLIGHTLY kind,
And that other people won’t too much mind,
If you have – a little bit of “blooming luck!”
Yeah, there’ll-be-jealousy, but-with-“J,” we-re-ALWAYS-stuck!

So, draw me a Heart – on a foggy window pane (pause slightly here and tear up a bit)
And I’ll draw one for YOU, with some droplets of rain! (pause, pause)
Let me put up your hair, and I’ll wash you in the bath;* (pause, once more)
You-know, there’s-no-one-I’d-rather-be-with, [while]-walking-this-path!

– Because I love your skin!

Because I love your skin

Australian History ~ Australian Aboriginal

Watershed moments in Indigenous Australia’s struggle to be heard

PHOTO Indigenous Australians fight for rights and recognition to this day

The story of the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is contested and complex.

From the arrival of the First Fleet to the trauma of the Stolen Generations, the fight for land rights and the Uluru Statement from the Heart, it has often been one of marginalisation and struggle .

Here, we trace how the story has evolved, with a focus on how Indigenous communities have been shaped by shifting government policies.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander readers are advised that this article contains the images of people who have died.

11 ships change everything
The land, way of life and rich culture of Australia’s first people was forever changed by the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788.

The European ships also marked the beginning of a dramatic decline in the Indigenous Australian population.

“It was an invasion,” says Pat Anderson AO, who has spent her life advocating for the rights and welfare of Indigenous people and is chair of Australia’s national Indigenous health body, the Lowitja Institute.

“Our understanding and our experience of that coming is bloody, it’s murderous, it’s unforgivable.”

While there is some evidence of deep and lasting relationships between settlers and Indigenous communities, it was the exception rather than the rule.

PHOTO Armed fighting between Europeans and Aboriginal people is depicted in this painting by William Oswald Hodgkinson.
SUPPLIED: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA
Ms Anderson says there were massacres, poisonings and “the spread of blankets with smallpox”.

“Definitely it was a full-scale attack on those people who for 65,000 years had lived on this beautiful continent,” she says.

Prior to first contact, the Aboriginal population was estimated to have been between 750,000 and 1.5 million. By 1901, that number was more like 100,000.

Disease played a major part in the population decline, says Indigenous affairs expert Tim Rowse, but “there was also a lot of killing”.

‘Detribalisation’ and reserves
There was a common assumption among white people in the 1900s that the Indigenous population wouldn’t exist in the foreseeable future.

At the turn of the century, Professor Rowse says, white people thought that once uncolonised tribes were contacted they would fall into a pattern called ‘detribalisation’.

“[This] would be so rapidly destructive of them physically and culturally that in a few generations after contact they also would no longer be present as a distinct people,” he says.

Historian Henry Reynolds says this view was heavily influenced by the popularity of Social Darwinism.

“Anyone who was up-to-date, anyone who was modern, accepted the truth of evolution, and it was assumed evolution applied to human races like [it did] to species in the natural world,” he says.

“Primitive human races were dying out, and nature had dictated that and there wasn’t much that could be done about it.

“So in a sense they felt that the Aborigines had no long-term future.”

Some believed the only way to stop the decline in the Indigenous population was to protect them from the white community.

PHOTO Aboriginal people were taken into reserves where they were taught “civilisation” and Christianity.
MAVIS WALLEY
This, Professor Rowse says, was used as an argument for the removal of Aboriginal people into reserves, where they were taught “civilisation” as well as Christianity.

But state-run reserves were often poorly funded and resourced, with low quality of schooling and little prospect of employment.

History professor Bain Attwood says it left Indigenous people feeling disenfranchised.

“The skills that they need in order to survive, let alone flourish in the wider world, they don’t acquire those skills,” he says.

Segregation and silencing
Listen to the series

The story of relations between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is contested and complex. Listen to the three-part series from RN’s Rear Vision.
In 1901 six self-governing colonies federated to become the Commonwealth of Australia.

Indigenous Australians weren’t counted towards the national population figure.

By the early 1900s there was an increasing number of reserves all around Australia, especially in southern states such as New South Wales.

Many white townsfolk became very anxious about the population of Aboriginal residents on reserves.

Social and political sciences professor Heidi Norman says governments began to employ policies of segregation “to push Aboriginal people further out of town”.

“A key strategy to implement segregation was the threat of the removal of children [which] posed such a threat over the lives of Aboriginal people,” she says.

“By the 20th century what we start to see is a silencing, a marginalisation, an invisibility of Aboriginal people in the spaces of towns and cities.”

The ‘half-caste problem’ and the policy of assimilation
By the 1920s it became clear that the Aboriginal population was no longer facing extinction. Instead, it was growing.

“Institutional interventions, the institutional management of the Indigenous population, although it was very heavy-handed, did have a biologically protective effect,” Professor Rowse says.

Around the country, white and Indigenous people began to grow new, large families of people of mixed race.

But not everyone was pleased about this.

“There was a lot of talk about the ‘half-caste menace’ and in particular the concern about intermixture, of trying to stop the breeding of these mixed-descent people,” Professor Reynolds explains.

The mixed-race people were considered by many white people to be a threat to civil society.

“And that’s why they started taking light-coloured children away. So they could be absorbed,” Professor Reynolds says.

“They did not want a self-conscious Aboriginal minority developing. And this is certainly true of the 1920s and 1930s.”

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Rear Vision puts contemporary events in their historical context, answering the question: “How did it come to this?”
The law allowed a government-appointed ‘Chief Protector’ to undertake the care, custody or control of an ‘Aboriginal or half-caste’ if in his opinion it was necessary or desirable.

Between 1910 and 1970, many Indigenous children were forcibly removed from their families. They would become known as the Stolen Generations.

The policies of child removal left a legacy of trauma and loss that continues to affect Indigenous communities, families and individuals.

While there are people who dispute the facts of the Stolen Generations, in 1997 the Bringing Them Home report acknowledged the thousands of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people affected by forcible removal.

A labour force working for free
Despite segregation, parts of the Australian agricultural industry depended on an Indigenous labour force.

“Aboriginal men in particular were very important parts of the wool industry, in shearing, certainly in the cattle industry, and in land-clearing and fencing,” Professor Rowse says.

Marcia Langton, a prominent Indigenous academic, says historians call the system “indentured labour”, but “much of it was actually slavery”.

Professor Reynolds agrees.

“Absolutely, yes. This was certainly true right across Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Wages were rarely given to the [Indigenous] workers.”

Throughout the early-to-mid 20th century, urban and rural Indigenous communities were engaged in acts of resistance and striking for transparency around wages.

Political climate heats up
In 1927 Wiradjuri man Jimmy Clements, known as “King Billy”, walked from the Brungle Mission to Canberra for the opening of Parliament House in 1927.

He was one of only two Indigenous people present at the opening, and was not invited. At the time, he said it was a protest to demonstrate his “sovereign rights to the Federal Territory”.

It was the first recorded instance of Aboriginal protest at Parliament, but it would not be the last.

PHOTO Wiradjuri elder Jimmy Clements in 1927, in the first recorded instance of Aboriginal protest at Parliament.
SUPPLIED: NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF AUSTRALIA
In 1938, while NSW was celebrating its sesquicentenary in 1938, “hundreds of Aborigines meeting in a hall on what is now George Street [were] passing resolutions about how badly they were treated, asking for land rights, asking to not be starved and to have some rights”,” Professor Langton says.

In the post WWII period, international ideas and treaties also begin to influence events in Australia.

“The impact of what was happening in the Americas, in particular, the Black Power movement and the Civil Rights movement, had an enormous impact on Aboriginal people,” says Paul Coe, Indigenous activist and an initiator of the Aboriginal Legal Service.

At the 1950-51 Aboriginal Worker’s Strike in Darwin, Aboriginal man Fred Waters was banned from his country.

Unionists took up the cause, which led to the establishment of the Council for Aboriginal Rights and, later, the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders (FCAATSI), which lobbied for changes to the constitution, under which Indigenous Australians were not recognised as citizens.

The recently formed United Nations, which counted Australia in its numbers, also put the pressure on to remove discriminatory constitutional legislation.

A landmark referendum and the birth of the Tent Embassy
A referendum on May 27, 1967 marked a significant step for Indigenous rights.

Alongside the FCAATSI, activists such as Faith Bandler had lobbied hard for support for the referendum and to encourage yes votes from areas all over Australia.

PHOTO The 1967 referendum granted Indigenous people certain citizenship rights, including being reckoned in the census.
FEDERAL COUNCIL FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF ABORIGINES AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDERS
They argued that unless the Australian government had the power to make special laws for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the states would continue to allocate inadequate resources for education, housing and health in Indigenous communities.

“It was vitally important to have that referendum to force the Commonwealth government to be responsible for the Aboriginal people, because only the Commonwealth had the necessary resources,” Bandler said at the time.

Australians overwhelmingly voted to amend the constitution. Indigenous people were granted certain citizenship rights, including being reckoned in the census.

The landmark decision also made it possible for the Commonwealth to make laws regarding Indigenous Australians.

That presented a space for Indigenous people to fight for rights specific to them, not just the same rights as other Australian citizens.

Right wrongs: The ’67 referendum

On May 27, 1967, Australians voted in a referendum to change how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were referred to in the Constitution.
In 1972, when prime minister Billy McMahon “refused to acknowledge the communities of the Northern Territory entitled to have land rights”, four men โ€” Billy Craigie, Michael Anderson, Bertie Williams and Tony Coorey โ€” decided to go to Canberra and protest. The Tent Embassy was born.

“They… went down and raised a beach umbrella. Within a matter of days that area was just swarming with Aboriginal people. It was like a magnet,” Mr Coe says.

“We wanted to have the stake in what goes on in this country, and we wanted to have a say.”

Professor Jennifer Clark, head of the school of humanities at the University of Adelaide, says the impact was “enormous and monumental”.

‘”You have these young men who are disaffected…who spontaneously go to the lawns of Parliament House, put up an umbrella, sit there and say, ‘We feel like aliens in our own land and this is an Aboriginal embassy’,” she says.

PHOTO LtoR: Billy Craigie, Bert Williams, Michael Anderson and Tony Coorey started the Tent Embassy
THE TRIBUNE / SEARCH FOUNDATION
When police were called in to remove protesters and violence erupted, it was seen in news reports around the globe.

“The age of television broadcast the brutality and so that made people sit up and pay attention,” Professor Langton says.

The Tent Embassy remained, however, and in February 1972 then-opposition leader Gough Whitlam accepted an invitation to visit the embassy.

“This giant, lanky, long-legged man goes to the Tent Embassy and sits down and is engaged in what appears to very genuine dialogue, and he leaves the tent embassy saying that he will legislate land rights,” Professor Norman says.

One of the first acts of the Whitlam Government in 1973 was to establish The Aboriginal Land Rights Commission, known as the Woodward Royal Commission.

It was charged with inquiring into appropriate ways to recognise Aboriginal land rights in the Northern Territory of Australia.

PHOTO Aboriginal rights activist Vincent Lingiari with Gough Whitlam, who visited the Tent Embassy before becoming PM
HTTP://KEITHLYONS.FILES.WORDPRESS.COM
It eventually led to the Aboriginal Land Right (Northern Territory) Act of 1976, which was passed by the Fraser Liberal Government.

“The bill was probably the most the most progressive land rights act ever passed either at the national level or at state parliament,” Mr Coe says.

“[It] gave the Aboriginal communities of the Northern Territory complete say over the future of their own country, and that meant having control over things like minerals, having a say as to what happens to the water.”

The Hawke Government came to power in 1983 promising National Land Rights, but by 1985 it had backed away from that promise.

Fred Chaney, a former Liberal Aboriginal affairs minister, said it was “a promise too hard to deliver”.

“It was too hard politically, administratively. Here in Western Australia there was a really deeply racist campaign, run by the mining industry, supported by … the Liberal Party,” he says.

“As Minister for Aboriginal Affairs in the federal government in 1978-80, I was strongly opposed by my own party at the state level for our support for land rights. It was a matter of deep and bitter political division.

“In the end it just wasn’t going to happen, and it didn’t happen.”

’90s ‘golden age’
Enshrining national land rights, a prospect that had created deep political divisions in Australia, would prove more difficult.

“It was a case of them going back to the courts,” Professor Reynolds says, “and that is exactly what happened”.

Eddi Mabo took his fight against the legal doctrine of “terra nullius” to the High Court โ€” and won.

His wife Bonita said the landmark 1992 decision made her family “as proud as punch”.

“We got to that side of Sydney, pulled up on the side of the road and we got a call from [my daughter] to say ‘Dad won the decision, won the case’,” she told the ABC at the time.

“We just jumped out and hugged each other.”

PHOTO Celuia Mabo and Bonita Mabo, with grandson Bryan, celebrate the 1992 ruling
SUPPLIED: TREVOR GRAHAM
The case led to the Native Title Act 1993, which gave land rights to Indigenous groups who could demonstrate their continuing connection to country.

But for many Indigenous people, especially those in the southern states, these rights were of little or no use.

“The majority of people are never going to be able to demonstrate that they’ve got native title rights, largely because a lot of the land in this country has had, what we call under the Native Title Act, ‘extinguishing acts’ committed over it,” says Jakelin Troy, director of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research at the University of Sydney.

“There are a whole lot of kinds of title given to other people or entities that extinguish native title.”

The 1990s are also notable as the decade in which the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, or ATSIC, was formed.

“It was an organisation that had an elected arm of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who represented all of the communities across Australia,” Professor Troy says.

“It was unique in the world, it was like our own self-government.”

Coupled with prime minister Paul Keating, “who was very pro-Indigenous rights”, it was “kind of a golden age” for Aboriginal affairs, says Professor Troy.

However, in 2004 the Liberal Government abolished the organisation, with prime minister John Howard saying it was an experiment that had failed.

“In my view there has been nothing post-ATSIC that has been as effective in terms of Aboriginal affairs, as ATSIC was,” says Fred Chaney, a former Liberal Aboriginal Affairs minister.

Hopes made and dashed
On February 13, 2008, prime minister Kevin Rudd delivered a historic national apology to the Stolen Generations โ€” the estimated one in three children of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples were forcibly removed from their families.

“We apologise for the laws and policies of successive parliaments and governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on these our fellow Australians,” Mr Rudd said.

“For the pain, suffering and hurt of these stolen generations, their descendants and for their families left behind, we say sorry.

“To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the breaking up of families and communities, we say sorry.”

PHOTO Gwenda Stanely comforts her Aunty Rita Shillingworth during the apology
LISA MAREE WILLIAMS: GETTY IMAGES
The apology produced significant momentum for Indigenous rights, but Ms Anderson says since then progress has been slow.

She describes the past decade as “very bleak in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander affairs”.

“We haven’t had a voice, we’re invisible in this country of ours, decisions are made completely outside of any discussion or contact with us, and this has to change,” she says.

“It has to be in the constitution …so governments of the day [can] not just get rid of it on a whim or a fancy.”

In another nod to the pain of the past, a push to change the date of Australia Day from January 26, when the First Fleet landed at Port Jackson in Sydney, began to gain momentum.

From 2012, a national campaign calling for Indigenous people to be recognised in the constitution gained significant media attention, but some believed the necessary referendum would set back the campaign for a treaty with Indigenous Australia.

For many Indigenous Australians, the First Nations Constitutional Convention in Uluru in May 0f 2017 provided hope of steps towards change.

PHOTO Dancers perform at the opening ceremony of the summit at Uluru.
ABC NEWS: STEPHANIE ZILLMAN
Law Professor Megan Davis says it was a historic moment.

“Indigenous Australia came together for the first time, with a historic consensus position to say to the Australia people: ‘We’re here at Uluru, we’re an aggrieved party, we are telling you you have done something wrong, we want you to meet with us to talk about what that wrong is and how it can be addressed’.”

The convention resulted in the Uluru Statement of the Heart, proposing a constitutionally enshrined voice to the parliament, a Makarrata Commission (a dispute resolution process) and truth-telling.

But the Government rejected the Statement, with Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbill saying the proposal was “contrary to the principles of equality of citizenship” and was too radical a change to succeed at referendum.

The fight for constitutional recognition

For many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families, the complex debate over our constitution seems a world away. So what will constitutional recognition mean to Aboriginal families?
The rejection sparked anger and disappointment from within the Indigenous community.

Darkinjung Aboriginal Land Council chief executive Sean Gordon described the rejection as an “act of political bastardry”.

But former co-chair of Mr Turnbull’s Indigenous Advisory Council, Chris Sarra, urged Indigenous leaders to “stay at the table” and not “have tantrums” while working towards constitutional recognition.

Cape York lawyer Noel Pearson has said that, one year on from the Statement, there is still a “window” to develop a constitutionally-enshrined voice representing Indigenous Australians.

The fight for change among Australia’s first nations people, that began with the arrival of the First Fleet, continues.

POSTED WED 4 JUL 2018, 8:32 AM AEST
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